Ptilosarcus gurneyi PTIGUR-092694-SHIRON-004
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Breeder ID: PTIGUR-092694-SHIRON-004
Date received: 9/26/94
Identification: Ptilosarcus gurneyi Gray, 1860
Geographic origin: Northeastern Pacific, Puget Sound
Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)
Phylum Cnidaria Hatschek, 1888 (= Coelentrata Leuckart, 1847)
Class Anthozoa Subclass Alcyonaria (= Octocorallia)
Order Pennatulacea Suborder Subselliflorae
Genus Ptilosarcus (formerly Leioptilus?)
Species gurneyi (Gray, 1860)
Description: Generally found in large colonies anchored to sediment by the base of the primary polyp which buds off lateral polyps in a regular fashion. Numerous rows of polyps are arranged on the upper exposed enlongated and cylindrical portion (rachis) in single rows on leaf-like structures and are of two distinct types. Autozooids bear tentacles and function in feeding; and siphonozooids which are small with reduced tentacles which function to create water currents through the colony. Translucent and pale orange in color. May reach a length of 50 cm when fully expanded. Range is from Puget Sound northward to Prince Rupert, British Columbia. Reportedly preyed upon by the ophistobranch Armina californica. Other members of the genus Ptilosarcus include; P. quadrangularis, P.sinuosus P. verrillii
Time in captivity: specimens collected one week prior to spawning at vernal equinox.
Size (mm): not indicated
Broodstock notes: Collected by divers from Lopez Pass, Washington, USA at a depth of 18 meters.
Physical differences: Prior to spawning gametes are visible in “leaves” at base of gastrozooids
Adult diet: zooplankton
Pre-spawning activity: spawning occurs just before vernal equinox. Specimens collected and maintained until spawning.
Time spawning began: evening
Area spawning occurred: gametes released into water column
Frequency of spawning: continuously during spawning period
Egg description: Fertilization occurs in water column. Females expel 500 – 600 micron eggs; male produces “cloud” of sperm
Approximate quantity: ~ 100,000
Size: 600 micron zygo
Egg changes / development: zygote to morula in 9 hours
Appearance: Zygote to swimming planulae in ~80 hours.
Transfer / removal method: Siphoned into bucket and collected using 250 micron mesh Nitex nets.
Spawning tank size (liter): 500
Lighting & photo period: ambient. Spawning stimulus is a brief period of bright sunlight after one (1) day of dim (cloudy) light. Broodstock received ambient light through windows.
Filtration: open system
Additives and dosages: none, natural seawater
Water temperature (F): 52 – 54
Fry development / changes: planulae settle in sand on day 10 (demersal).
First food offered: Non-feeding planulae
Development description: Metamorphosis from planulae to first zooid in 12 – 14 days. First zooid is competent to feed in ~ 21 days (autozooid, sometimes referred to as gastrozooids). First siphonzooid in ~ 24-25 days. After 30 days; 3 autozooids and 4 – 6 siphonozooids.
Rearing tank size (liter): 250
Lighting & photoperiod: ambient
Filtration:open, natural seawater
Additives and dosages: none
Water temperature: 52 – 54 \F0F
Original description: First described by Gray in 1860. One reference (Ricketts, et al.,1968) indicates the genus was formerly Leioptilus, but no other source found to confirm this.
Word origin: The genus Ptilosarcus is from the Greek roots ptilo (pronounced till-o) means a feather; and sarc– meaning flesh. (The reference to a former genus Leioptilus would translate to “smooth feather” ; leio meaning smooth). The species gurneyi has no root forms and may be in honor of someone named Gurney.
Vernacular name: Northeast Pacific Sea Pen
Brusca, Richard C. & Gary J., Invertebrates, 1990, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA 01375, USA, ISBN 0-87893-098-1
George, John D., & George, Jennifer J., Marine life, 1979, Lionel Levethal Limited, 2-6 Hampstead High Street, London NW3 1QO, UK., A Wiley-Interscience Publication,
Johnson, Myrtle E. & Harry J. Snook, Seashore Animals of the Pacific Coast, 1967, Dover Publications, Inc., 180 Varick Street, New York, NY 10014, USA (reprint of 1927 work published by MacMillan Company) ISBN 486-21819-8
Ricketts, Edward F., Calvin, J., Hedgpeth, J. W., Between Pacific Tides, Fifth Edition, Revised by David W. Phillips, 1985 (Previous editions; 1939, 1948, 1952, 1968) Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA. ISBN 0-8047-1229-8
About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1994