The fishes were collected from the floating/drifting sargassum weeds off Vizhinjam coast (South west coast of India, Near Kovalam Beach) to the marine aquaria and Research Centre of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Vizhinjam. Fishes (6-8) were kept in 5 ton circular FRP quarantine tanks for their forward transition to the exhibit tanks. Two of the fishes were observed to have highly inflated abdomens. The second evening between 1600 -1630 hrs there was a splashing sound in the quarantine tank and upon inspection a transparent gelatinous object was found. It was found floating on the water surface (see photographs below). The egg mass/raft appeared to be double layered with slightly larger middle region and blunt ends at both sides. The length of the egg mass/raft was found to be about 30-35 cm. The egg mass/raft was transferred to a 500 L tank in a flow though system after an hour. Moderate aeration was given initially as the air bubbles started attaching to the gelatinous membranes. The airstone was removed and only slight bubbling near the surface was allowed to give water movement. By the second evening, the gelatinous matrix began to disintegrate. Microscopic analysis of the eggs found them to be undivided/unfertilized and decaying.
My 100-gallon reef tank was recently overtaken by hair algae, an unfortunate plight that befalls many older reef tanks. I set up this tank in 1972 and cleaned it thoroughly only once, about 25 years ago. Putting off a long overdo cleaning, I decided to add an animal that was advertised as something that would eat this menacing algae. To this end I acquired what was sold as a “lettuce nudibranch” and placed it in the tank.
INTRODUCTION: The Banggai cardinalfish (BC) Pterapogon kauderni (a.k.a. the banner cardinal, black and silver high fin cardinal, and/or outhouse cardinal), is an attractively patterned black and silver cardinalfish. This species was initially collected and described by Gerald Allen in September 1995  , and is primarily found in the mid waters off the remote Banggai island in the Indonesian archipelago. His initial observations were that these fish aggregated in small groups of 2 to 60 animals living among the spines of sea urchins. Allen has proposed that they are nocturnal feeders eating primarily planktonic crustaceans. Like most cardinalfish they have large eyes and reside in the crevices and beneath rock ledges by day, searching the bottom for food at night  . While BC attain a length of 2 to 2-1/2 inches Standard Length (SL), most specimens encountered in the tropical fish stores are 1 to 1 1/2″SL .
The idea for this approach to feeding “slow” feeding fishes came during a visit to a large marine wholesaler in New York. I noticed large bare tanks of Hippocampus species. They were fed in the morning and within a few minutes all of the Artemia was in the filters. If the fish were not shipped in a day or two they would often die from starvation. Lacking a well developed stomach with only a short intestinal tract they have no capacity to store food and must feed continuously (Giwojna, 1994). Systems which have continual filtration make continual feeding difficult to provide so I decided to take home one of these creatures (a female) and see if I could not solve this problem.
Success with a reef aquarium depends on many factors. It is generally acknowledged that lighting and water movement are two of the more important parameters to consider. Advanced hobbyists can measure light intensity with lux or quantum meters.
The light and quantum measurements can often exceed that of the sun under some of the higher wattage lighting systems. It is only a matter of proper specimen placement to achieve the desired result…, but what of water movement?
The Suborder Gobiodei is one of the largest groups of fishes (Order Perciformes) encompassing 3-7 families, 263-270 genera and approximately 2000 species. Reference material can be confusing because of contradiction from one source to another, not only with respect to number of families and Genus, but even the spelling of (which is sometimes a typographical error,(1)). The Decorated FireFish (or fire-goby) Nemateleotris decora is placed by some in the Family Microdesmidae, while other references list it as a member of the family Gobiidae. Common names further add to the confusion; the Mandarin Fish, Synchiropus splendidus, a member of the Dragonets, (family Callionymidae), is often sold as the Mandarin Goby. The Convict blenny, Pholidichthys leucotaenia, is commonly offered as a Convict goby and the juveniles are sold as Engineer gobies!
Written & Illustrated by Graham F. Cox (Director of Waterlife ReSearch Ltd) originally published by The Aquarist, November, 1977 (some things just haven’t changed that much!) Introduction The following is a brief record of the endeavours of the original Seaquariums Ltd., (1968-1970) and its later daughter-successor company Waterlife Research Ltd. (1970 to date) to breed coralfishes by the more difficult route, i.e. in closed-circuit marine aquaria using continually recirculating synthetic…
Ethological observations on the blennioid fishes Hypsoblennius hentz (Le Sueur) and Chasmodes saburrae Jordan and Gilbert
by Martin A. Moe, Jr. unpublished paper, spring 1966 reprinted here by permission ABSTRACT Two species of blennioid fishes Hypsoblennius hentz (Le Sueur) and Chasmodes saburrae (Jordan and Gilbert), were contained in aquaria and observed from 10 February 1966 to 31 March 1966. Resting, locomotion, aggressive, defensive, feeding, territorial and spawning behavior were observed and described. Spawning was observed only in H. hentz . Parental care was restricted to egg…