Premnas biaculeatus PREBIA-061893-BELSEA-001
The Breeder’s Registry® Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.
Breeder ID: PREBIA-061893-BELSEA-001
Date received: 6/18/93
Identification: Premnas biaculeatus (Bloch, 1790)
Geographic origin: Indo-pacific
Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)
Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata
Order Perciformes Superorder Teleostei
Species biaculeatus (Bloch, 1790, =Chaetodon)
Description: Bright red to brownish red body with three bars, generally narrow, but varies. Bars are typically while with a thin dark border. Bars are yellowish in some species (Sumatra region) . Spines just below the eye are easily seen; Females much larger (to 160 mm). Males are typically
much smaller (60 – 80 mm) and often brighter. Stripes disappear from the underside up as the fish become older. Some specimens in captivity have become almost completely solid colored. Distinct from all other anemone fishes.
Duration male(yr): 2.0
Size male (mm): var
Duration female : 2.0
Size female1 : var
Physical differences: Female larger and more robust.
Adult diet: Mash (shrimp, marine fish, fish roe, caulerpa hypnea [red algae], vitamin supplement, HUFA), live brine copepods
Pre-spawning activity:“Nest” area prepared, increased semi-aggressive contact on part of female.
Time spawning began: uncertain
Area spawning occurred: at spawning site
Frequency of spawns: not indicated
Egg description: Small mass, 2-3 cm across, adhesive, elongated
Approximate quantity: ?
Size:~ 2.0 mm
Egg changes / development: Darkening, visible eye development
Incubation period: 9 days
Time hatching occurred: after dusk
Size of hatching larvae: 3 – 4 mm
Yolk sac present?: yes
Newly hatched appearance: Transparent, shiny, with large eyes and small yolk sac. No fins except caudal fin initially observed
Transfer / removal method: not indicated
Spawning tank size (liter): 100
Lighting & photo-period: 2 – 6000K fluorescent
Filtration: UGF, skimmer
Additives and dosages: none
Water temperature (F): 75.5
Specific gravity: 1.021
Nitrate: <10 ppm
Fry development / changes: not indicated
First food offered: rotifers (young and adult) enriched with Selcon® (HUFA)
Survival 1st week(%): 50%
Development description: not indicated
Rearing tank size (liter): 100
Lighting & photoperiod: 1 – 6000 K fluorescent
Filtration: aeration only
Additives and dosages: H & W trace elements
Water temperature (F): 75.5
Specific gravity: 1.020
Nitrate: not indicated
Comments: Gerald Allen recognized Premnas and Amphiprion as subgenera of Amphiprionin Allen , G. R. 1972. The anemonefishes: their classification and biology. T. F. H. Publications, Neptune City, 288 pp. (Specifically on pages 4- -45). Stephen Spotte follows this description giving preference to genus Amphiprion in Spotte, S. 1992. Captive seawater fishes: science and technology. Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, 942 pp. (Specifically on pg 716). However, Allen is acknowledged as validating Premnas biaculeatus in 1991. This species has been previously listed under the following names: Chaetodon biaculeatus (Bloch, 1790), Lutjanos trifasciatus (Schneider in Bloch & Schneider, 1801), Scorpaena aculeata, Holocentrus sonnerat (Lacepede, 1802), Holocanthus biaculeatus, Premnas trifasciatus( Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830), P. leucodesmus (Cuvier (ex Kuhl & van Hasslet)), P. semicinctus ( Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) , P. unicolor (Cuvier, 1829), Sargus ensifer (Gronow in Gray 1854), and Premnas epigrammata (Fowler, 1904).
Word origin: Premnas; very few Greek or Latin roots end with an “s” following an “a”and the actual meaning of this word could be “based” in another language. The Greek word premn, -o, =um, means stem or a tree trunk. It could be based on the Latin root pre, meaning before, however, the closest derivation of -mnas is mnen, -at, -on which is Greek for memory or remember. The species provides almost equal mystery; biaculeatus; bi being Latin for two, twice or double; and acule, =us, being Latin for a sting, or horn. The ending is again uncommon, however the two known roots indicate “two horns” which would seem appropriate since this species has one or two well developed spines below the eye (Axelrod, et al., 1969) and the common name of Spine-cheeked Anemone or clownfish.
Fautine, Daphne G., & Allen, Gerald R., Anemonefishes and their Host
Anemones, 1994, Tetra Press, Germany, 158 pages, ISBN 1-56465-118-5
About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to, that which is presented you are encouraged to contact The Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. Copyright © 1994 The Breeder’s Registry. All rights reserved 1993.