Pareques umbrosus PARUMB-110397-HOLJOA-001

This entry was posted on Monday, November 3rd, 1997 and is filed under Drums or croakers, Spawning Reports.

The Breeder’s Registry© Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.

Breeder ID: PARUMB-110397-HOLJOA-001

Date received: 11/3/97

Identification: Pareques umbrosus (Jordan and Eigenmann, 1889)

Geographic origin: Gulf of Mexico

Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata

Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Infraclass Teleostei

Superorder Acanthopterygii Order Perciformes Suborder Percoidei

Family Sciaenidae

Genus Pareques

Species umbrosus (Jordan and Eigenmann, 1889)

Description: These are small sciaenids and are associated with reefs, rocky substrates and artificial reefs (e.g., rigs) and are found in small groups beneath rock ledges at depths up to 100 meters. Distribution is reported from the western Atlantic (North Carolina, Bermuda), to the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico (Campeche Banks, Mexico).  

Duration male(yr):m 5 years, 10 fish, more males than females,

Broodstock notes:

Size male (mm): 14-28 cm in length

Duration female (yr): 5 years

Size female (mm): 14-28 cm in length

Broodstock notes: Spontaneous spawns occurred under summer-like conditions of 15 hr light and 9 hr dark, 25-26C, pH of at least 8.2 and salinity of 35 ppt. Adults spawned 3 to 5 times weekly averaging 2000 eggs per spawn.

Physical differences: None

Adult diet: Chopped fish, shrimp or squid. Fed once daily

Pre-spawning activity: Three sub-adult cubbyus (Equetus umbrosus) were collected in September 1992 from near-shore oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico off Port Aransas, TX. The fish were matured to approximately 15 cm SL and were cycled through one year’s temperature and photoperiod regime and are held at 26C and a photoperiod of 15L:9D using the methods of C.R. Arnold (1988 Controlled year-round spawning of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in captivity. Contributions in Marine Science. Supp. To Vol. 30:65-70). Spontaneous spawning first occurred in November 1993 and continued at a frequency of 3-5 times weekly through November 1995.

Time spawning began: Dusk (5-6 PM)

Area spawning occurred: Near surface of tank

Frequency of spawning: Frequency of spawning: Adults spawned 3 to 5 times weekly

Egg description: Pelagic, spherical eggs

Approximate quantity: 1-3 mls of eggs, Average of 2000 eggs per spawn

Size: Eggs averaged 1.24 mm

Egg changes / development:. The pelagic eggs of E. umbrosus range from 1.08 to 1.38 mm diameter and average 1.24 mm with a single, pigmented oil globule measuring 0.23 mm diameter. At all egg stages, the larva, finfold and oil globule were heavily pigmented with
golden-green chromatophores.

Incubation period: Under conditions of 27C and 35 ppt, larvae hatched in ~24 hours.

Time hatching occurred: 4-6 PM the following day

Size of hatching larvae: Average of 2.82 mm NL

Yolk sac present?:Yes

Newly hatched appearance: Newly hatched larvae had heavy golden-green stellate chromatophores covering the trunk, anterior yolksac and the oil globule located in the posterior region of the yolksac. Additional, lighter web-like pigment was present on the external surface of the brain and in the finfold.

Transfer / removal method: A bag was tied to the filter box inflow pipe which collected the eggs as they flowed through the system.


Spawning tank size (liter): 9,650 L (2550 Gal) (Length): 12 ft x (Width): 6 ft x (Height): 5 ft

Sides of tank covered? Yes , white

Lighting & photo period: 240 W Philips® fluorescent 15 hours . Average distance from surface: 5 ft; from organism: 5-8 ft Bulbs are changed at burnout

Filtration: External biofilter. Pumping volume 3000 lph; full water turnover change every 3.4 hours. Freshwater only added to offset evaporation

Additives and dosages: Filtered seawater from the Aransas Pass, TX ship channel

Water temperature (F):26C Fluctuation: 2C

Specific gravity: 35 ppt measured daily with refractometer

pH: 8.2+ measured weekly with pH meter

Nitrate: not indicated

Ammonia: >0.02 (Avg. 0.01) Measured 3 times weekly using photometric methods (Adapted from Spotte 1972 and Solarzano 1969).

Nitrites: >0.002 (Avg. 0.001) Measured 3 times weekly photometric methods (Adapted from Spotte 1972 and Strickland and Parsons 1972).

Fry development / changes: Larvae attracted to light following pigmentation of eyes on days 2-3

First food offered: Rotifers on days 3 to 13, Two times daily

Second food offered:A rtemia sp. nauplii introduced on day 10 and fed after that. Larvae were easily weaned to artificial food after metamorphosis. Once daily


1st week(%): 23%

2nd week: week 2: 17%

3rd week: week 3: 11%

4th week: week 4: 10%

Long term survival: 7%

Development description: Transition to exogenous feeding occurred at 2.59 mm NL and pigmentation consisted of a heavy, lateral pigment stripe extending from the snout through the eye region to the clithrum. Flexion occurred at 4.67 mm SL. Juveniles averaging 30.53 mm SL had a characteristic 3-stripe color pattern. Juveniles 27.00 to 41.00 mm SL were in the 4-stripe coloration pattern. The final juvenile color phase (7-stripe) consisted of narrow dark stripes on a light gray background. (C. M. Riley and G. J. Holt, manuscript in prep) Metamorphosis to the
juvenile stage occurred between 10.00 and 15.00 mm SL.

Rearing tank size (liter): 150 L (40 Gal ) Conical tank (Diameter): 25 in x (Height): 3 ft

Sides of tank covered? Yes, light blue

Lighting & photo period: 2 – 40 W Philips® fluorescent 12 hours. Average distance from surface: 6 ft ; from organism: 6-10 ft. Bulbs are changed at burnout

Filtration: Internal biofilter. Pumping volume (lph, gpm, etc.): 200 lph; tank turnover once an hour.

Additives and dosages: Filtered seawater from the Aransas Pass, Texas. Freshwater added to offset evaporation

Water temperature (F): 26C Fluctuation: 2C

Specific gravity: Salinity: 35 ppt How measured? Refractometer, weekly

pH: 8.2+ measured weekly with pH meter

Ammonia: <0.02 (Avg. 0.01) Measured once weekly using photometric methods (Adapted from Spotte 1972 and Solarzano 1969).

Nitrites: < 0.002 (Avg. 0.001) Measured once weekly photometric methods (Adapted from Spotte 1972 and Strickland and Parsons 1972).

Comments: There are numerous taxonomic discrepancies within the reef sciaenids but here we follow C. R. Robins, 1991, Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Fifth Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 20. Bethesda, Maryland, 183 p.

Original description: Described by Jordan & Eigenmann as Eques acuminatus umbrosus, in 1889 in the Rep. U.S. Fish Comm. v. 14, based on a holotype (single specimen) collected at Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Valid as Equetus umbrosus.

Vernacular name: Cubbyu, juveniles are often all called highhats

Word origin: The species umbrosus is from the Latin word umbros meaning shady; acuminatus which appeared in the original description as Eques acuminatus umbrosus (in which umbrosus is a sub-genus) is from the Latin word acumin meaning pointed (or a point). Pareques acuminatus (common name Highhat) is very similar in appearance to Pareques umbrosus, except it is much lighter in coloration, thus the sub-genus reference umbrosus = shady. The highhat has a long “pointed” spiny dorsal, whose coloration alternates black and white horizontal lines on the body (equal). The genus Pareques begins with the Latin prefix par- which also means equal (thus “equal-equal”)

Suggested reading:

Thresher, R. E., Reproduction in Reef Fishes, 1984, T. F. H. Publications, Inc., 211 West
Sylvania Avenue, Neptune City, NJ, 07753, USA, ISBN 0-87666-808-2

About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1997


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