Palaemonetes pugio PALPUG-030193-ROSMAR-01

This entry was posted on Monday, March 1st, 1993 and is filed under Shrimps, Spawning Reports.

The Breeder’s Registry©Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.

Breeder ID: PALPUG-030193-ROSMAR-01

Date received: 3/1/93

Identification: Palaemonetes pugio ( Holthuis, 1949 )

Geographic origin: Cape Cod, Massachusetts, Atlantic Ocean 

Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Chelicerata

Class Malacostraca Subclass Eumalacostraca

Superorder Eucarida Order Decapoda Suborder Pleocyemata Infraorder Caridea

Family Palaemonidae (Rafinesque, 1815)

Genus Palaemonetes (= Palaemon) (Weber, 1795)

Species pugio ( Holthuis, 1949 )


Duration male(yr): varies

Size male (mm): 16 – 25

Duration female (yr): varies

Size female (mm): 25 – 37

Broodstock notes: Organisms are field collected each year and mixed with F1 and F2 animals.

Physical differences: not indicated, however males appear generally smaller

Adult diet: Tetra® basic flakes, newly hatched Artemia

Pre-spawning activity: Gravid females are collected from holding tray(s) and placed in mesh baskets suspended in rearing tank. After 1 week, larvae are collected and tank is cleaned and “reset” for more gravid females.

Time spawning began: unknown

Area spawning occurred: open water

Frequency of spawning: population is continuous

Egg description: like a cluster of clear to amber grapes attached to female

Approximate quantity: not indicated

Size: not indicated

Egg changes / development: clear – amber to grey-green as larvae develop

Incubation period: 20 – 24 days @ 77F

Time hatching occurred: unknown

Size of hatching larvae: 1.0 mm

Newly hatched appearance: not indicated

Transfer / removal method: see

Pre-spawning activity: 

Spawning tank size (liter): 125; 1.5 x 0.6 x .15 meters

Sides of tank covered? Yes, blue

Lighting & photo period: flourescent, cool white. 16 hours

Filtration: gravel filter

Additives and dosages: none indicated

Water temperature (F): 77

Specific gravity: 1.018

pH: 8.1

Nitrate: not indicated

Fry development / changes: Multiple zoeal stages with molts in between. Coloration is clear with minor internal coloration due to feeding

First food offered: Isochrysis sp., rotifers

Second food offered: newly hatched Artemia


1st week(%): 90

2nd week: 80

3rd week: 70

4th week: 70

Rearing tank size (liter): 190; 0.91 meter diameter

Sides of tank covered? Yes, blue

Lighting & photo period: flourescent, cool white. 16 hours

Filtration: gravel filter

Additives and dosages: none indicated

Water temperature (F): 80

Specific gravity: 1.018

pH: 8.1

Nitrate : non indicated

Comments: 300 – 400 animals are kept in holding trays at a time. Organisms are cultured predominately for toxicological studies.

Original description: Described by Holthuis in 1949. No other information is presently available.

Synonym: not found

Vernacular Name: daggerblade grass shrimp, grass shrimp

Word origin: The genus Palaemonetes is from the Greek root(s) paleo meaning ancient; mon meaning one or single; and etes meaning dwell, dweller or one who dwells. The species pugio is Latin for dagger. The Family Palaemonidae are commonly referred to as rock or anemone shrimp

Suggested reading:

Brusca, Richard C. & Gary J., Invertebrates, 1990, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA
01375, USA, ISBN 0-87893-098-1

Debelius, Helmut, & Baensch, Hans A., Marine Atlas, 1994, Tetra Press, 3001 Commerce
Street, Blacksburg, VA 24060 USA, ISBN 1-56465-113-4

About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1993


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