Hymenocera picta HYMPIC-091194-BRIKAR-002

This entry was posted on Sunday, September 11th, 1994 and is filed under Shrimps, Spawning Reports.

The Breeder’s Registry© Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.

Breeder ID: HYMPIC-091194-BRIKAR-002

Date received: 9/11/94

Identification: Hymenocera picta (Dana, 1852)

Geographic origin: Central Pacific

Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Arthropoda

Subphylum Branchiata (=Diantennata)

Class Crustacea Subclass Malacostraca

Order Decapoda Suborder Natantia

Family Gnathophyllidae (Dana, 1852)

Genus Hymenocera (Latrielle, 1819)

Species picta (Dana, 1852)

Description: The family Gnathophyllidae is commonly referred to by the vernacular name Harlequin shrimp . The word is composed from the Greek root(s) gnatho meaning jaw; and phyll meaning a leaf; with the standard ending idae indicating an animal. This description (jawed leaf animal) may originate from the feeding behavior of Gnathophyllum americanum which lives in the branches of dead coral stalks and feeds off detritus (Debelius & Baensch, 1994).

Members of this family are typically stout, short and broad bodied. The rostrum being small and rarely extending beyond the eyes. The second pair of walking legs are larger than the first and in the genus Hymenocera may be twice the length of the carapace. Species seen in the ornamental trade are typically 20 – 30 mm in length.

Duration male(yr): 2+

Duration female(yr): 2+

Size(mm): not indicated

Broodstock notes: Specimens at Waikiki Aquarium, Hawaii

Physical differences: Female larger than male. [ for an extended discussion of the genus Hymenocera see Debelius & Baensch, 1994 ]

Adult diet: Live starfish Linkia spp.

Pre-spawning activity: not observed

Time spawning began: after dark

Area spawning occurred: not specific

Frequency of spawning: not indicated

Egg description: Orange – red.

Approximate quantity: >100

Size: not indicated

Egg changes / development: Loose color becoming gray, eyes visible.

Incubation period: not indicated

Time hatching occurred: after dark

Size of hatching larvae: not indicated

Newly hatched appearance: attracted to light

Transfer / removal method: Female removed to rearing tank before hatch 

Spawning tank size (liter): 

Sides of tank covered? Yes, blue

Lighting & photo period: natural light, filtered through fiberglass panels

Filtration: open system from marine well

Additives and dosages: none

Water temperature (F): 76

First food offered: rotifers, 2/ml stocking at all times

Second food offered: Artemia nauplii at day 10

Development description: Metamorphosis at 6 weeks. Good long term survival after metamorphosis.

Rearing tank size (liter): 37

Sides of tank covered? No

Lighting & photo period: natural (as above)

Filtration: as above. Starting flow at 0.3 l / min and increased to 10 l / min

Water temperature (F): 79


Comments: Bottom of rearing tank scrubbed / vacuumed daily. Moved into flow-through barrels (180 liters) at 2 months. 200 / barrel. Began feeding on Linkia spp soon after metamorphosis.

Original description: Dana described Hymenocera picta in 1852, the same year he proposed the family Gnathophyllidae. No other information is available.

Vernacular name: Eastern harlequin shrimp, Harlequin shrimp

Word origin: The genus Hymenocera is from the Greek root(s) hy meaning “Y” or “U” shaped; =meno meaning a mouth; and cera meaning horn. The species picta is from the Latin word meaning painted or variegated.

Suggested reading:

Debelius, Helmut, & Baensch, Hans A., Marine Atlas, 1994, Tetra Press, 3001 Commerce
Street, Blacksburg, VA 24060 USA, ISBN 1-56465-113-4

About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1995

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