Hymenocera picta HYMPIC-091194-BRIKAR-002
The Breeder’s Registry© Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.
Breeder ID: HYMPIC-091194-BRIKAR-002
Date received: 9/11/94
Identification: Hymenocera picta (Dana, 1852)
Geographic origin: Central Pacific
Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)
Subphylum Branchiata (=Diantennata)
Class Crustacea Subclass Malacostraca
Order Decapoda Suborder Natantia
Family Gnathophyllidae (Dana, 1852)
Genus Hymenocera (Latrielle, 1819)
Species picta (Dana, 1852)
Description: The family Gnathophyllidae is commonly referred to by the vernacular name Harlequin shrimp . The word is composed from the Greek root(s) gnatho meaning jaw; and phyll meaning a leaf; with the standard ending idae indicating an animal. This description (jawed leaf animal) may originate from the feeding behavior of Gnathophyllum americanum which lives in the branches of dead coral stalks and feeds off detritus (Debelius & Baensch, 1994).
Members of this family are typically stout, short and broad bodied. The rostrum being small and rarely extending beyond the eyes. The second pair of walking legs are larger than the first and in the genus Hymenocera may be twice the length of the carapace. Species seen in the ornamental trade are typically 20 – 30 mm in length.
Duration male(yr): 2+
Duration female(yr): 2+
Size(mm): not indicated
Broodstock notes: Specimens at Waikiki Aquarium, Hawaii
Physical differences: Female larger than male. [ for an extended discussion of the genus Hymenocera see Debelius & Baensch, 1994 ]
Adult diet: Live starfish Linkia spp.
Pre-spawning activity: not observed
Time spawning began: after dark
Area spawning occurred: not specific
Frequency of spawning: not indicated
Egg description: Orange – red.
Approximate quantity: >100
Size: not indicated
Egg changes / development: Loose color becoming gray, eyes visible.
Incubation period: not indicated
Time hatching occurred: after dark
Size of hatching larvae: not indicated
Newly hatched appearance: attracted to light
Transfer / removal method: Female removed to rearing tank before hatch
Spawning tank size (liter):
Sides of tank covered? Yes, blue
Lighting & photo period: natural light, filtered through fiberglass panels
Filtration: open system from marine well
Additives and dosages: none
Water temperature (F): 76
First food offered: rotifers, 2/ml stocking at all times
Second food offered: Artemia nauplii at day 10
Development description: Metamorphosis at 6 weeks. Good long term survival after metamorphosis.
Rearing tank size (liter): 37
Sides of tank covered? No
Lighting & photo period: natural (as above)
Filtration: as above. Starting flow at 0.3 l / min and increased to 10 l / min
Water temperature (F): 79
Comments: Bottom of rearing tank scrubbed / vacuumed daily. Moved into flow-through barrels (180 liters) at 2 months. 200 / barrel. Began feeding on Linkia spp soon after metamorphosis.
Original description: Dana described Hymenocera picta in 1852, the same year he proposed the family Gnathophyllidae. No other information is available.
Vernacular name: Eastern harlequin shrimp, Harlequin shrimp
Word origin: The genus Hymenocera is from the Greek root(s) hy meaning “Y” or “U” shaped; =meno meaning a mouth; and cera meaning horn. The species picta is from the Latin word meaning painted or variegated.
Debelius, Helmut, & Baensch, Hans A., Marine Atlas, 1994, Tetra Press, 3001 Commerce
Street, Blacksburg, VA 24060 USA, ISBN 1-56465-113-4
About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1995