Homalopoma indutum HOMIND-011699-KIRMIK-001

This entry was posted on Saturday, January 16th, 1999 and is filed under Slugs and snails, Spawning Reports.

The Breeder’s Registry© Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.


Breeder ID: HOMIND-011699-KIRMIK-001

Date received: 1/16/99

Identification: Homalopoma indutum (Watson, 1878)

Geographic origin: Florida coast


Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Mollusca

Class Gastropoda (Cuvier, 1797) Subclass Prosobranchia (Milne-Edwards, 1848)

Order Archeogastropoda (Thiele, 1925) Superfamily Trochacea

Family Turbinidae (Rafinesque, 1815) Subfamily Homalopomatinae

Genus Homalopoma (Carpenter, 1864)

Species indutum (Watson, 1878)


Description: Species identifed by Ronald Shimek, Ph. D. 15 species are listed by ITIS, but no other information found under this genus, or the genus Leptonyx (Carpenter, 1864) a junior synonym, or the vernacular name “two-faced dwarf-turban”.


Duration(yr): 7+

Size (mm): 2 – 3

Broodstock notes: n/a

Physical differences: Looks like juvenile common Mexican Turbo sp.

Diet: algae on glass and rock

Pre-spawning activity: These snails literally swarmed over each other in a mass about the size of the end of my thumb. They were hanging from the underside of the LR above some live sand in area receiving only diffused light. I have never before witnessed this swarming behavior. The mass ‘writhed’ for lack of a better term, and I observed plumes of spawn from individual snails. Suddenly the whole mass started spawning, nearly obscuring the mass in the milky spawn. Upon returning with a camera, the spawn had ended, and many of the snails had dropped off onto the live sand.

Time spawning began: around 7pm (approximately 2 hours before lights cycle off)

Area spawning occurred: Underneath ledge of live rock

Frequency of spawning: Short bursts released for a minute or so (observed)

Egg / spawn description: brief 3-5 mm plume / puff of ‘smoke’

Approximate quantity: n/a

Size: n/a

Were eggs / removed to a separate tank? no

Egg changes / development: n/a

Spawning tank size (liter): 280 (75 gallon) 117 cm (Length) x 45 cm (Width) x 50 cm (Height)

Are sides or back covered? no

Lighting & photoperiod: 2 – 250W 6,500K Iwasaki bulbs for 14 hours per day. Lights ~ 8 inches from surface. Bulbs are about 16-18 months old and due for replacement

Filtration: Berlin with deep oolitic sandbed and Turboflotor skimmer, 75 liter ( 20 gallon) gallon sump. Pumping volume roughly 10x tank volume constant, with 500 gph pulsed via wavemaker.

Additives and dosages: Instant Ocean ® ASW , Recently moved (12/22/99) Massive water
change totaling about 50 to 60% at that time. Nothing since .Kalkwasser (usually daily)

Source of replacement water: RO unit

Specific Gravity: 1.025 to 1.026 (Swing-arm hydrometer)

pH: n/a

Temperature (F): 82-84


Comments: I now believe, after the ID from Ron Shimek, that these were hitchhikers on some of my original Florida LR. These snails have reproduced continuously for years. This was the first time I observed the actual spawning. I had previously thought them to be juvenile “Mexican” turbos.


Original Description: First described 1878 by Watson

Word origin: The genus Homalopoma is from the Greek word homalo meaning even , level; and the Greek root poma meaning cover or lid. The species indutum is from the Latin roots in which means in, du meaning two or double; and tum meaning to swell. Considering the vernacular (common) name “two-faced dwarf turban”, one could speculate a literal translation of “swollen in two” may be reference to the appearance of the snail.

Venacular name: Two-faced dwarf-turban

Suggested reading: aside from taxonomic databases, none found.

About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1999

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