Haemulon flavolineatum HAEFLA-020799-BROJEN-001

This entry was posted on Sunday, February 7th, 1999 and is filed under Spawning Reports.

The Breeder’s Registry©Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.

Breeder ID: HAEFLA-020799-BROJEN-001

Date received: 2/7/99

Identification: Haemulon flavolineatum Desmarest, 1823

Geographic origin: Florida Keys

Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata

Class Actinopterygii ( = Osteichthyes)

Order Perciformes Suborder Percoidei

Family Pomadasyidae (= Haemulidae)

Genus Haemulon Cuvier, 1829

Species flavolineatum (Desmarest, 1823)

Description: Grunts are very similar to the snapper family (Lutjanidae) differing mainly in dentition. Teeth are pointed but none are developed as prominent canines, whereas the snapper has fixed canines. The common name “grunt” is for the sounds produced by the grinding of pharyngeal teeth. The French Grunt is a relatively small species and the most common grunt found on reefs of southern Florida and the West Indies (Randall, 1968). The body is bluish-silver with yellow stripes which are horizontal above the lateral line and oblique below. Fins are yellow. Length to 30 cm (~ 12 inches).

Meristic characteristics : DR XII, 14 or 15; AR III, 7 or 8; PR 16 or 17; LLS 47 to 50; scales around caudal peduncle 22; GR 22 to 24; maximum size to 300 mm SL (?)

Duration in captivity (yr): 2.5

Sex: ~50 individuals of unknown sex ratio

Size (mm): 150 – 200 mm TL

Broodstock notes: Animals are exhibited in a large community tank that includes several reef species, sharks, rays, and large open water fishes.

Physical differences: None apparent

Adult diet: Frozen zooplankton, chopped shrimp, smelt, clam, squid, and a prepared gelatin based food. 2 feedings per day.

Pre-spawning activity: Adults are often observed in aggressive displays during the day, including the characteristic “kissing” posture of this

Time spawning began: Begins at dusk

Area spawning occurred: n/a

Frequency of spawning: Almost every night

Egg description: n/a

Approximate quantity: several thousand

Size: avg. 1.05mm

Egg changes / development: Eggs were very small, clear, and fairly buoyant with one large oil droplet. Blastula stage observed after 6-8 hours, first eggs hatched at around 24 hours, all were hatched by 36 hours.

Incubation period: 24-36 hrs.

Time hatching occurred: n/a

Size of hatching larvae: avg. 3.30 mm

Yolk sac present?: Yes, very large

Newly hatched appearance: Newly hatched larvae were strong swimmers and were able to keep themselves off sides and bottom of rearing tank
fairly well. Not attracted to light until eyes are pigmented.

Transfer / removal method: Eggs were collected from exhibit tank with a fine mesh dip net set in the surface skimmer of the tank, OR collected by setting an airlift to pump water through a screened box overnight and then removed to a separate tank

Spawning tank size (liter): Kidney shaped tank, approx. 15.25 meters (50 feet) wide; 36.5 meters (120 feet) long; Height 4.6 meters (15 feet). Capacity 1,080,000+ liters (286,000 gallons) Back and part of the sides are covered.

Lighting & photo period: 1000 watt Metal Halide 14hrs summer, 11hrs winter. Sunlight – tank is under several skylights, seasonal photoperiod and moonlight. 120 cm (4 feet) average distance from the surface and up to 426 cm (14 feet) from the animals. Bulbs changed yearly.

Filtration: Reverse flow under gravel, rapid sand filters, ozone sterilization, and foam fractionators. Pumping volume – 21,200 lph (5600 gpm)
Commercially prepared salt mix with 20% changes per week. Replacement water is filtered city water.

Additives, medications added : none

Water temperature (F): 76\F0F winter; 81\F0F summer. Seasonal fluctuation as noted above, but very stable within a season.

Salinity: 30 ppt, measured with refractometer

pH: 7.9 – 8.0 measured with a Hanna pH meter

Nitrate: 40 ppm (average) measured with cadmium reduction method, spectrophotometry

Fry development / changes: Fin fold not extremely large, yolk is huge, melanophores visible along body. Strong swimmers, react well to
stimulus. Eyes, gut and mouth parts developed between 24 and 36 hours post hatching. Larvae readily pursued rotifers and were observed to curl their bodies into an “S” shape prior to striking their food. Pigmentation was present in loosely organized clumps along the sides of the larva until approximatelt 14 days, at which time a well defined stripe was visible that ran from the head to the caudal peduncle along the sides of the larva. A darkly pigmented spot was also visible on the caudal peduncle at this age. Metamorphosis occured between 3-4 weeks, at 13-14 mm TL .Metamorphosed juveniles developed a yellow-orange color in the fins and scales in addition to the lateral stripe and caudal spot. Juveniles accepted chopped frozen plankton at approx. 50 days post hatching, at which time they were weaned from Artemia.

First food offered: rotifers, started feeding at approximately 24 hours. post hatching. 3 times daily.

Second food offered: Artemia nauplii, 10-12 days post hatch. Twice per day


1st week(%): 80%

2nd week: 60%

3rd week: 40%

4th week: 20%

Long term survival: 10-15%

Rearing tank size (liter): Approximately 375 liters (100 gallons) total capacity. Larvae are reared in individual solid black fiberglass tubs with an approximate volume of 22 liters (6 gallons) each. 46 cm (18 inches) diameter round tub with sloped bottom. Water depth is approximately 20 cm (8 inches)

Sides of tank covered? solid black fiberglass tubs

Lighting & photo period: 25 watt incandescent on for 24 hours for 1st 3 weeks of life, then 8 hours light. 40 watt full spectrum 8 hours
direct light, 24 hrs “moonlight” created by indirect system kept in the same room. Bulb(s) are approximately 90 cm (36″) from the surface and organisms. Bulbs changed as needed.

Filtration: Fluidized sand bed, UV sterilization, bag filter (50 micron). Overflows have 100 micron screens. Commercially prepared salt mix with less than 10% daily water changes.

Additives and dosages: none

Water temperature (F): 79\F0F, 1 – 2\F0 nightly fluctuations.

Salinity: 32 ppt, measured with refractometer

pH: 8.0 – 8.2

Nitrate: 5 – 10 ppm

Original description: Described in 1823 by Desmarest as  Diabasis flavolineatus in the 1823:[35], Pl 1 (fig 3) Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris,
v 2; Validated by W. R. Courtenay Jr., in 1961, Western Atlantic fishes of the genus Haemulon (Pomadasyidae): systematic status and juvenile pigmentation. Bulletin of Marine Science Gulf Caribbean, v 11 (no. 1): 66-149; and in 1986 by C. R. Robins & G. C. Ray in, A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Boston. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1986: iii-xi, 1 – 354. [with illustrations by John Douglass and Rudolph Freund.]

Word origin: The genus Haemulon is from the Greek roots haem meaning blood; and ulo meaning “a scar”. This could be in reference to the many species in this family with bright orange coloration inside of the mouth. The genus flavolineatum is from the Latin roots flav meaning  “yellow”; line meaning “line”. atum is a common Latin ending.

Vernacular name(s): French grunt (possibly in honor of Desmarest)

Suggested reading:

Burgess, W. E., Axelrod, H. R. & Hunziker, III, R. E., Atlas of Marine Aquarium Fishes, Second Edition, 1990, T. F. H. Publications, One T. T. H. Plaza, Neptune City, NJ 07753, TFH-H-1100, ISBN 0-86622-896-9 (color photographs, pages 277-8, adult and juvenile coloration)

Kaplan, Eugene H., A Field Guide to Coral Reefs of the Caribbean an Florida, 1982, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2 Park Street, Boston, MA 02108, ISBN 0-395-31661-8 (brief description page 226)

Randall, John E., Caribbean Reef Fishes, 1968 (1st edition), T. F. H. Publications, Inc., T.F.H. Building, 245 Cornelison Avenue, Jersey City, NJ, 07302, TFH-H-932, (description, page 137)

Spotte, Stephen, Captive Seawater Fishes: Science and Technology, 1992, Wiley- Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Professional, Reference and Trade Group, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10158-0012, USA, ISBN 0-471-54554-6 (discussion of nocturnal diel behavior, page 281-2, 697)

Thresher, R. E., Reproduction in Reef Fishes, 1984, T. F. H. Publications, Inc., 211 West Sylvania Avenue, Neptune City, NJ, 07753, USA, ISBN 0-87666-808-2 (discussion of family with a brief discussion of this species, pages 137 – 141; photographs of juvenile and adult coloration page 134)

About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1999

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