Gramma loreto GRALOR-091093-CQUEST-001

This entry was posted on Friday, September 10th, 1993 and is filed under Grammas, Spawning Reports.

The Breeder’s Registry© Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.

Breeder ID: GRALOR-091093-CQUEST-001

Date received: 9/10/93

Identification:Gramma loreto (Poey, 1868)

Geographic origin: Puerto Rico

Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata

Class Osteichthyes Superorder Teleostei

Order Perciformes Suborder Percoidei

Family Grammatidae (=Grammidae)

Genus Gramma

Species loreto (Poey, 1868)

Duration (yr): var

Size (mm): 62

Duration (yr): var

Size (mm): 52

Broodstock notes: a total of 35 pairs, mostly raised at C-Quest

Physical differences: Male is larger

Adult diet: Seafood, fed 4 times per day

Pre-spawning activity: Male entices female into nest (hole) by displaying

Time spawning began: Daytime

Area spawning occurred: Inside nest (hole)

Frequency of spawning: Daily

Egg description: Small egg “balls with protuberances (look like WW II mines)

Approximate quantity: 100+

Size: Large

Egg changes / development: Not observed

Incubation period:7 days

Time hatching occurred: after dusk

Size of hatching larvae:

Yolk sac present?: Yes

Newly hatched appearance: relatively large with striped pigmentation

Transfer / removal method: Not removed

Spawning tank size (liter): 75

Sides of tank covered? Yes, black

Lighting & photo period: Natural

Filtration: Multiple types

Additives and dosages: none, natural seawater

Water temperature (F):70 – 90 F

Specific gravity: 1.024

pH: 8.1

Nitrate:0 – 0.2 ppm

Fry development / changes: Metamorphosis occurs at 21 – 30 days at which time adult coloration appears.

First food offered: rotifers

Second food offered: Artemia nauplii


1st week(%): 80%

2nd week: 50%

3rd week: 30%

4th week: 25%

Rearing tank size (liter):304 Liter circular tanks

Sides of tank covered? Black

Lighting & photo period: natural

Filtration: multiple types, open system

Additives and dosages: natural seawater collected ~ 90 meters off shore

Water temperature (F): 70 – 90F

Specific gravity: 1.024

pH: 8.1

Nitrate: 0 – 0.2 ppm

Comments: This fish is easy to spawn. A good choice after clownfish. Best efforts yielded 25% survival .

Word origin: The genus Gramma is from the Greek word Gramm, – a, -at meaning a letter or writing. The species loreto has no Latin or Greek roots. There are two locales using the same spelling Loreto, one is in Brazil approximately 100 miles inland; the other is in Mexico on the Baja Peninsula on the Sea of Cortez. Neither of these seem to have any association with this species. The species name may have had some  significance to Poey who first described this species in 1868 in the Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505, 1868:296
from a Holotype (unique) collected at Matanzas, Cuba. The family Grammatidae is referred to in some references as Grammidae. Nelson (1984) lists Grammatidae.

About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. Reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1993

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