Amphiprion melanopus AMPMEL-031297-BRIKAR-006

This entry was posted on Wednesday, March 12th, 1997 and is filed under Clownfishes, Spawning Reports.

The Breeder’s Registry© Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations from aquarist unless noted otherwise (see comments). Information may be reproduced providing the Breeder’s Registry is cited.

Breeder ID: AMPMEL-031297-BRIKAR-006

Date: 3/12/97

Identification: Amphiprion melanopus Bleeker 1852

Geographic origin: Western Pacific

Taxonomy: (after I.C.Z.N.)

Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Chordata

Subphylum Vertebrata

Class Osteichthyes

Order Perciformes Superorder Teleostei

Family Pomacentridae

Genus Amphiprion Bloch and Schneider 1801

Species melanopus Bleeker 1852  

Description: Adults generally black on sides with reddish face (snout), lower abdomen and dorsal fin. Caudal fin may be red or sometimes a pale yellow. Pelvic and anal fins typically balck. Single white vertical bar on the head just behind the eye. Lacking black margin on head bar. Color variations exist, including the absence of the head bar. Maximum length ~ 120 mm.

Distribution: Indonesia (Bali eastward) to Great Barrier Reef to Coral Sea.

Host Anemone: Entacmaea quadricolor (Ruppell & Leuckart 1828), Heteractis crispa (Ehrenber, 1834), H. magnifica (Qouy & Gaimard 1833),

Meristic charcteristics: D. IX – XI, 15 – 19; A. II, 13 – 15; P. 17 – 20; LLS. 32 – 42; GR. 16 – 20; BD. 1.7 – 1.9

Male – length of time in captivity(yr): collected 5/25/91

Size male (mm): not indicate

Female – length of time in captivity(yr): collected 5/25/91

Size female (mm): not indicated

Broodstock notes: Collected in Palau. Fish are housed in Waikiki Aquarium’s Lagoon Coral display with many species of corals and nine other species of fishes. The broodstock have become quite drab in color.

Physical differences: Female is slightly larger than male

Adult diet: Gelatin mix and flake food. Occasionally frozen brine shrimp. Fed twice daily.

Pre-spawning activity: Nest cleaning activities, typical of clownfish.

Time spawning began: ~ 1600 hours

Area spawning occurred: On the side of a large coraline rock

Frequency of spawning: sometimes irregular, averages 13 days

Egg Description: typical clownfish spawn, nest ~ 50 mm diameter

Approximate quantity: not indicated

Size: not indicated

Incubation: ~ 9 days

Time hatching occurred: ~ 1.5 hours after dark, larvae attracted to light

Size at hatching: not indicated

Egg changes / development: typical of clownfish

Transfer / removal method: when nest is on something removable it is placed in a small bucket while underneath the water and moved to the larval tank.

Spawning tank size (liter): ~ 1100 (155 cm L x 84 cm D x 91 cm W)

Sides of tank covered? Yes, sides and back are blue

Lighting & photo period: 2 400 watt 20,000 K Radium® bulbs, 0700 – 1900 hours OR 0700 2100 hours). Natural sunlight through skylight..

Filtration: Open system (marine well water). Pump for circulation. UGF. System turns over every 2 days..

Water temperature: 25 – 27 C

Fry development / changes: Develops head bar, then mid-body bar and yellow tail. Our juveniles were brown with white bars and yellow tails.

First Food Offered: Rotifers,constant supply

Second Food Offered: Copepods day 4 (constant supply)

Survival: Hatching rate was very low ( ~ 20%) , of those that hatched ~ 40% survived.%

Development description: Metamorphosis as early as day 7 , most by day 10. 

Rearing tank size (liter):109 ( 76 cm L x 45 cm W x 30 cm H)

Sides covered?: Yes, back and sides black

Lighting & photo period: 1 20 watt fluorescent cool white, 16 hours. Bulb 10 cm from surface.

Filtration: Airstones only. None

Additives & doses: daily water changes (50%) Aquarium well water

Temperature: 25 – 27C

Comments: This pair of A.melanopus are not good breeders. The percentage of eggs which hatch from a nest is fairly low.  

Original description: First described by Dutch Icthyologist Pieter Bleeker as Amphiprion melanopus, 1852 in Natuurkd. Tijdschr.Neder. Indie v. 3, from specimens collected at Amboina, ( Molucca Islands) Indonesia. Valid as Amphiprion melanopus (Allen )

Synonym of Amphiprion melanopus

Amphiprion monofasciatus, Thiolliere in Montrouzier 1857:476 [198] [Ann. Soc. Imp. Agric.
Hist. Nat. Lyon v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789]. Woodlark I., South Pacific. No types known. On p. 198
of reprint. Synonym of Amphiprion melanopus Bleeker 1852 (Allen 1991:237 [ref. 19344]).

Prochilus acrostoma, Bleeker 1877:136 [Versl. Akad. Amsterdam (Ser. 2) v. 11; ref. 17111].
Ambon I., Moluccas Is., Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Figured in
Bleeker 1877: Pl. 401 (fig. 5) [ref. 6835]. Synonym of Amphiprion melanopus Bleeker 1852
(Allen 1991:237 [ref. 19344]). Pomacentridae.

Amphiprion arion, De Vis 1884:450 [Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089]. South
Seas. Holotype (unique): QM I.2688. Synonym of Amphiprion melanopus Bleeker 1852 (Allen
1991:237 [ref. 19344]). Pomacentridae.

Amphiprion verweyi, Whitley 1933:85 [Rec. Aust. Mus. v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 4677]. Northwest Islet,
Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.5063. Paratypes: AMS IA.5064-65
(1, 5). Synonym of Amphiprion melanopus Bleeker 1852 (Allen 1991:237 [ref. 19344]).

Vernacular name: Cinnamon clownfish, Red and Black anemonefish

Word origin: Amphiprion is from the Greek roots amph, -i, -o, meaning Around, on both sides; double, and -prion which means a saw, this is in reference to the serrations present on certain body and skeletal structures. The genus melanopus is from the Greek word melan meaning black; and op meaning appearance.

Suggested reading:

Fautin, Daphne G., and Gerald R. Allen, Anemone Fishes and their Host Sea Anemones,
Tetra-Press, Germany, 1994 ISBN 1-56465-118-5

Hoff, Frank H., Conditioning, Spawning and Rearing of Fish with Emphasis on Marine
Clownfish, Aquaculture Consultants Inc., Dade City, FL, 33525 USA 1996

Moe, Martin A., The Marine Aquarium Reference: systems and invertebrates, Green Turtle
Publications, Plantation, FL 33318 USA 1989 ISBN 0-939960-05-2 : 21.95

About this report: Information contained in this report is taken from submitted observations. Taxonomy, Synonomy, Original description , Word origin and Suggested reading are provided by member(s) of The Breeder’s Registry staff. Information is presented under the belief that it is accurate. If you have information in addition to, or contrary to that presented you are encouraged to contact the Breeder’s Registry. Permission is granted for “one-time” personal use. reproduction as distributed or accessible media is prohibited without prior written permission. All rights reserved. 1997

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